Curriculum for Franco-American Women of Maine, Grades 7-12


Researched and written by Rhea Côté Robbins, © 2001, 2021


"I believe that it is time to introduce these French women pioneers.  As a young lady once asked me, 'Were there ever any?'"

-Corinne Rocheleau


     The immigration of the French to the North American continent, for the most part, does not take place with immigrants passing through Ellis Island. The entry point for the French immigrants, beginning in the early 1600s up until the conquest by the English in 1765 for Quebec and the deportation in 1755 in Acadia, was into Canada, also known as New France, and then immigrating via a border crossing into the United States.   The French came to North America, New France, via the St. Lawrence River and settled the many towns along the river.   Québec, Ville-Marie as Montréal was first known, Isle d'Orleans and many more towns were the first homes to the French.   The French, and how they came to be in the state of Maine and the Northeast via a land bridge, border crossing, makes them a unique cultural immigration group.  They came for many reasons, some to stay in the U.S. and some who returned to their homelands in Canada. Most of them came to live and work and have been here for several generations.  All levels of society immigrated to the U.S.:   professional, clergy, religious, laborer, merchant and more.


     The long history of immigration to the North American continent by the French culture, since the 1600s, brings to mind the question:  Who were the Franco-American heroines?  The following is an introduction to a play written by Corinne Rocheleau, an early Franco-American women writer, which was commissioned by the Cercle Jeanne-Mance in the early 1900s, and it brings to mind the idea that there were heroines who made important contributions to the settlement and development of the North American continent.   The legacy of these women lives today in the Franco-American women of Maine.





As performed in Worcester, Massachusetts on February 10, 1915




Some say that a happy people have no history.   If this saying applies to individuals, we must believe that the first French women in America were happy for we seldom hear about them.


We have often discussed the major feats and accomplishments of the French colonists, but we have left their "better halves" in semi-darkness.    I believe that it is time to introduce these French women pioneers. As a young lady once asked me, "Were there ever any?"


It is truly sad that so few details survive concerning these courageous women who confronted the dangers of long and stormy ocean crossings to establish themselves in a strange and foreign country.   The centuries have practically erased all traces of their footsteps on American soil.


To find the names of these heroines, we must consult   the old  records   of Québec, of Montreal, of Detroit or of New Orleans.    If this proves to be too much, we need only to look in the monumental  work   "Dictionnaire Généalogique de Tanguay" which would prove to us that so many thousands of these pioneer women lived and died.  A genealogical dictionary, however, does not tell their stories.


But, by studying the Canadian and American archives, these women appear - almost like magic -  from their   pages.   Taken aback by their beauty, their charm and dare I say it, their French   mentality, I have retrieved them - one by one - from the cloudy depths of history where they have been hidden - first of all for the sheer pleasure of admiring them like cameos from the past and finally for the greater pleasure of seeing them reborn as interpreted by the members of the "Cercle Jeanne-Mance."  


No one asked me why I did not interpret Marie de L'Incarnation, Marguerite Bourgeois and the "Soeurs Hospitalieres".    It is because these have been interpreted by others more capable than I.  It is also because I thought it best to leave these religious sisters hidden beneath their veils, in their cloisters, relegating to those who worked alongside them - women such as Madame de la Peltrie   and Jeanne Mance  - the task of revealing the arduous life of these wonderful women.


Corinne Rocheleau

Worcester, Massachusetts - August 1915


As well as those women mentioned above, the play is about heroines (which can all be researched on the internet) such as:

Huron Women

Mrs. Louis Hébert                                                             

Guillemette, her daughter, first female settlers in Québec        

Mrs. Samuel de Champlain                                          

Mrs. de la Peltrie                                                               

Mrs. de la Tour, baronne de St. Estienne              

Lady in Waiting                                                                        

Jeanne Mance                                                                

Mrs. Jacques de Lalande                                                  

Mrs. Louis Jolliet                                                              

Madeleine de Vercheres                                                   

Jeanne le Ber                                                                 

Jeanne le Ber's cousin                                         

Mrs. de la Mothe-Cadillac                                                 

and in the   EPILOGUE

A   Franco-American mother and her daughters                                                 

Marie    and Françoise.

(Roy, 1999)


(Editor's Note: To the above list, I would add Les Filles du Roi, the King's Daughters)

Now, a new book published in translation:

Rheta Press presents--

*Canuck and Other Stories

Wednesday's Child

A Franco-American memoir
by Rhea Côté Robbins

         Now almost a century has passed and we are to investigate the lives of the Franco-American women and we too believe that it is time to introduce these French women pioneers and to learn more about their descendants.  

         Where would a learner begin to look for the Franco-American women in the history of Maine?   Where would their presence be felt and seen?   Who are they and where have they left their imprint?   What was the primary language for many of these women?   Were they French speakers exclusively, and when or where is the English language introduced?  What are the issues of becoming a citizen of the United States when one is of the French language and cultural heritage group?   What happens in the process of assimilation, or if not, what does that mean for a women? 

         To begin with, Franco-American women are not all the same.   Some are of Québéc heritage, some are Acadian, Métis, Mixed Blood, French Canadian, 'Cajun, Creole and Huguenot.



United States residents of French heritage and culture (more than 10 million) having full or partial expression of the North American French language and culture reflecting at least two distinct historical experiences as well as other distinctions.


Québec: Québec roots: History, folklore, culture and language marked by the Québec rural farm depopulation of the latter part of the 19th century and first half of the 20th century and their "overnight" settling in urban textile manufacturing areas of the Northeast with smaller numbers in the wood cutting and farming economy.


Acadian: Acadian roots: History, folklore, culture and language marked by the maritime--Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island--historical home of their forebears and the Acadian dispersion of 1755 and 1785. In the North East they are found mostly in Maine's St John Valley with smaller settlements elsewhere in Maine, in Massachusetts, Connecticut


Métis:   A person of mixed racial/cultural heritage--generally applied to Native American and French American "métissage" of race and culture. People of mixed French Canadian and Indian heritage.


Mixed Blood:   A person of French and other cultural heritage(s).


French Canadian:   An older version defining the French population of the Northeast. Comparable to Franco-American.


I include the next three definitions because of the possibility of comparison/contrast history being done with the cultural connection to the Maine Franco-American/Acadian heritage group:


'Cajun: Cajun is a person who descends from Acadian exiles banished from Nova Scotia in the eighteenth century and -- importantly -- all the ethnic groups with whom those exiles and their offspring intermarried on the south Louisiana frontier (for example, French, German, and Spanish settlers).


Creole: A Creole, however, is a native south Louisianan whose ancestry is black, white, or mixed-race (black-white, black-Indian, black-white-Indian), usually of French-speaking heritage.


Huguenot: The Huguenots were French Protestants who were members of the Reformed Church established in France by John Calvin in about 1555, and who, due to religious persecution, were forced to flee France to other countries in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Considerable numbers of Huguenots migrated to British North America, especially to the Carolinas, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. Their character and talents in the arts, sciences, and industry were such that they are generally felt to have been a substantial loss to the French society from which they had been forced to withdraw, and a corresponding gain to the communities and nations into which they settled.


         The question remains why this particular heritage group is of importance to address in the Maine classroom.  Sheer numbers of immigrants coming from Québec and Acadian lands would warrant a serious look at this cultural group.


         Between 1840 and 1930 roughly 900 000 French Canadians left Canada to emigrate to the United States, mostly to the Northeast. This important migration, which has now been largely forgotten in Quebec's collective memory, is certainly one of the major events in Canadian demographic history. According to the 1980 American census, 13.6 million Americans claimed to have French ancestors. While a certain number of these people may be of French, Belgian, Swiss, Cajun or Huguenot ancestry, it is certain that a large proportion would have ancestors who emigrated from French Canada or Acadia during the 19th and 20th centuries. Indeed, it has been estimated that, in the absence of emigration, there would be 4 to 5 million more francophones living in Canada today. Around 1900, there would scarcely have been a French-Canadian or Acadian family that did not have some of its members living in the United States. (Belanger, 1999) [On-line]. Available: Accessed August 12, 2001.

         The 4 to 5 million residents are now in the United States and 40% of the population of the state of Maine is of French heritage.  Of these, many are women.


Where are the women and how to study their contributions?


Geographically, the state of Maine can be divided into Northern, Central, and Southern sections when looking at the geographical gathering points for the Franco-Americans.  Each section would reveal a history of rural, urban, mill worker, professional, farmer, farmer's wife, life of the religious, and more.   There can be templates of the inherent culture of each geographical section, but the danger would be to allow stereotypes to define these women and their lives.  Under each category of cultural geography there would be many subsets of history defining the lives of the Franco-American women.


Each section would have a cultural geography which is unique and similar to the larger cultural definition of Franco-American historical perspectives.   Franco-American women have played a very important role in the settlement and development of the entire state.   The challenge would be to learn the known contributors and to further investigate the women of the various communities.


Starting in one's own family, or community, conducting interviews of the local women will reveal much about the history of their lives.   Some women might tell the student interviewing them that they have nothing of interest to say, but if prompted, they have a wealth of information to share.  The women have not always understood the value of their lives and their contributions.   First person accounts such as interviews would begin to build a data base of the life stories of the women, their mamans, their mémères, ma tantes, nieces and cousines.  


Some of the suggestions, while not exhaustive, for finding these women and their histories are to be found in the following:



Wood Harvesting Operations

Small Town Residents

Cross-border citizenships

Nursing Home

Assisted Living Residences




Religious Life

Mill Work




Single Woman Status

Married Woman Status






Midwife/Sage Femme






Public Monuments to women


Each section of the state would also have women who have accomplished exemplary achievements.  Short biographical histories have been recorded about some of these women and much remains to be done.  Some of the women, such as Marguerite "Tante Blanche" Thibodeau of northern Maine is an example of one of the unsung heroines of the Franco-American/Acadian culture (see Resource List for web site).


Another example would be Senator Margaret Chase Smith who was also of Franco-American heritage--a little known fact that her mother was of French ancestry.   Tracing the history of such an influential woman as Chase Smith would reveal the size of the contributions that Franco-American women have made worldwide.   The Margaret Chase Smith Library has yet to recognize her Franco-American ancestry.  


The first president of the Maine Press and Radio Women was a Franco-American woman from Lewiston, Maine.  Her name was Charlotte Michaud. That organization is still in operation today known as the Maine Media Women.  The history of this organization is due in part to the dedication of the founding women, one of which was a Franco-American.


These are only a few of the examples of the women who are prominent and not always included in the history books.   Many, many more can be discovered and recorded.


Another source of information would be in primary documents within the family or community such as letters, prayer books, recipe books, baby books, knitting or crochet patterns, baptismal, First Communion, Confirmation records, cemetery headstones, old newspapers, magazines as well as any other type of record keeping that would help define these women and their often silent, but dedicated existence.  Family and community folklore, stories, songs, plays, and other means of recording the culture of a group who immigrated to the state of Maine.   Histories of the many orders of nuns is also a little known piece of the general history of Maine.  Each geographical area of Maine would have had their own order of nuns, or even several orders doing work in the community.   There are also Franco-Americans who have been members of Protestant religions, both in the past and in the present.   An example would be the French Baptist Church in Waterville.   Local town histories would be a source of this kind of event.


What follows is a list, again not exhaustive, of resources.   Some will have information on the Franco-American women, and some will not.  This is a caution to a student doing research.  Simply because an organization or individual offers Franco-American cultural information, it may not be specific to the women of the culture.   In order to arrive at the women's lives and their contributions, a student doing research must focus specifically on the women and not on the general culture.   General Franco-American cultural study does not go deep enough into the inquiry to reveal the women's lives.   Staying on topic, both in the interview and inquiry process, should be a criteria for the work   being done on Franco-American women's history.


There is no better time in history to embark upon such a learning experience because of the resurgence of the local communities and the Franco-American culture to re-learn their histories.  The field of study is varied and rich in possibilities!





Local Libraries

State Library

University Libraries

Genealogical Societies

Historical Societies

Festival Committees

Local Newspapers, present and past

Auxiliaries to VFW, American Legion

Church Organizations

Religious Orders

Church Histories/Archives

Town/City Records

State Archives

Local Historians

Private Collections/Museums

Art Museums

Arts Organizations

Mill Records

Military Records

Civic Organizations

Economic Organizations

Bingo Halls



Religious Stores

For a listing of  sites:

A Necklace of the 
Franco-American Jewels 
of Maine & NH


Northern Maine:


Acadian Archives/archives Acadienne


Evangeline 150th Anniversary: Saint John Valley

Tante Blanche Museum


Acadian Festival, Madawaska, Maine


Bouchard Family Farm


Acadian Village - The Virtual Tour - Van Buren, Maine (Founder: Frances A. LeVasseur)


St. John Valley Times, weekly newspaper


Central Maine


Franco American Women's Institute / l'Institut Femmes Franco-Américaine, Brewer, Maine

Maine Folklife Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine


Historic Byways


Chaud-Bec Project--Deep Woods and River Roads: Voices From the Kennebec Chaudiere Heritage Corridor


The French Connection, Waterville, Maine

Franco American Programs / Études franco-américaines. University of Maine, Orono, Maine

Southern Maine


Acadian Roots, Rumford, Maine

Franco American Collection

Centre d'Héritage Franco-Américain

Lewiston-Auburn College, Lewiston, Maine


Franco-American Studies Program, University of Southern Maine,

Lewiston-Auburn College, Lewiston, Maine


Catholic Health Services



 Bélanger, Claude, Department of History, Marianopolis College.

"French Canadian Emigration to the United States, 1840-1930."



Roy, Jeannine Bacon, Trans, French Women of North America , Translation, 1999. Françaises d'Amérique , 1915.




Anctil, Pierre, A Franco-American bibliography. New England, N. H. : National Materials Development Center, 1979.


Anchors, Nancy & Blazej, Barbara, Doing Diversity: Weaving respect for differences in the fabric of children's lives, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, Peace Studies Program, 1995.


Author: T. C.  A scheme to drive the French out of all the continent of America.    [microform] : Humbly offered to the consideration of -- --, Esq; : This pamphlet came in the last ship from London to a gentleman in Boston, and we hear it has been highly approved of, and is recommended as very useful at this time to every friend of liberty.   : New-England, : Re-printed and sold by D. Fowle in Ann-Street, near the conduit.,  1755.


Beaugrand, Honore, Jeanne la Fileuse, National Materials Development Center, 1980.


Baxandall, Rosalyn and Gordon, Linda, w/Susan Reverby, eds, America's Working Women: A Documentary History, 1600 to the Present (Revised ed. W.W. Norton, 1995).


Bérubé, Bernard Arthur, 1947- A comparison of attitudes among Maine communities toward Franco-American civic status and native language vitality. Orono, Me., 1986.


Brault, Gerard J.  The French-Canadian Heritage in New England.   Hanover, NH:  University Press of New England, 1986.


Caffee, Gabrielle Leboeuf.  La Canadienne :  Memoires of a Vanishing Culture.  Lanham, MD :  University Press of America, 1993.


Cather, Willa, Shadows On The Rock, ISBN 0-679-76404-6


Center for Cultural Exchange Study Guide Québec and Maritime Canada: A curriculum resource for educators, The Center for Cultural Exchange , Portland, Maine, 1999. 


Chappell, C.L., "The Pains I took to save my Family" : escape accounts by a Huguenot mothers and daughter after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, French Historical Studies 22 (1999).


Chartier, Armand B. The Franco-Americans of New England : a history , Manchester, N.H. : ACA Assurance ; Worcester, Mass.: Institut français of Assumption College, 1999.


Chassé, Géraldine Pelletier, Reunion Family's Favorite Recipes, Madawaska Historical Society, Madawaska, Maine, 1992.


Chopin, Kate, The Awakening and Selected Stories, Penguin Books, New York, NY, 1984.


Chopin, Kate, Bayou Folk and A Night In Acadie, Penguin Classics, New York, NY, 1999.


Chouinard, Paule, «OEuvre et vie de Alice Lemieux-Lévesque (1905-1983)», mémoire de maîtrise, 1983, v, 183 p. Dir. : Benoît Lacroix. Cote : UdeM D. Thèses PQ 35 U54 1984 v.003; UdeM L.S.H. PQ 35 U54 1984 v.003; Microfilm; Centre d'études québécoises.


Coté, Gertrude, M. As I Live and Dream, A Dirigo Edition, Manchester, Maine,



D'Andrea, Vaneeta-marie, The women of survivance : a case study of ethnic persistence among the members of Franco-American women's groups in New England , Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Connecticut, 1986.


DeRoche, P. Celeste, 1960-,"These lines of my life" Franco-American women in Westbrook, Maine, the intersection of ethnicity and gender 1884-1984 . Orono, Me., 1994.


DeRoche, P. Celeste, "I Learned Things Today That I Never Knew Before:" Oral History At The Kitchen Table in Oral History Review 23/2 (Winter, 1996): 45-61.


DeRoche, Celeste, How wide the circle of we : cultural pluralism and American identity 1910-1954, Thesis (Ph.D.) in History--University of Maine, 2000.


Desjardins, Lise A., 1960- An exploration into the health and illness beliefs of a Franco-American community : the description of a clinical reality .  Orono, Me., 1995.


Doty, C. Stewart.  Acadian Hard Times:  The Farm Security Administration in Maine's St. John Valley 1940-1943.   Orono, ME:  University of Maine Press, 1991.


Dumas, Emma, Mirbah, National Materials Development Center, 1979.


Dumont, Micheline, et al., The Clio Collective, Quebe Women: A History , The Women's Press, Toronto, Canada, 1987. Translation by Roger Gannon and Rosalind Gill.


Duval-Thibault, Anna, Les Deux Testaments, National Materials Development Center, 1979.


ECHOES magazine, ISSN 1043-3341, ECHOES Press, Inc., Caribou, ME.   04736-0626.


"Emigration, a Franco-American experience."   Montreal : Ovo magazine, 1982.


Displacement, diaspora, and geographies of identity.   Durham : Duke University Press, 1996.


Fecteau, Albert C, The French Canadian community of Waterville, Maine, 1952, ii, 190 leaves, Thesis (M.A.)--University of Maine, Bibliography: leaves 114-119, Orono : University of Maine, 1980.


Ferland, Jacques, " ' In Search of the Unbound Promethea': a study of female activism in Quebec cotton mills, 1870-1907," Labour/Le travail, Spring 1993.


Field, Rachel. Calico Bush, Bantam Doubleday, ISBN 0-440-40368-5.


The Franco-American Women's Institute,


The Franco-American Women's Institute Suggested Readings & Bibliographies,


Gastonguay, Alberte. La Jeune Franco-Américaine, National Assessment and Dissemination Center for Bilingual/Bicultural Education, 1980.


Gauvin, Bertha Caron, Au Temps des Années Folles, Self-published, Madawaska, Maine.


A Franco-American overview.  Cambridge, Mass. : National Assessment and Dissemination Center for Bilingual/Bicultural Education, 1979. Includes bibliographies. v.1./ compiled by Renaud S. Albert--v.2.Midwest and West / compiled by André Martin--v.3.New England (pt.1) / edited by Madeleine Giguère--v.4.New England (pt.2) /edited by Madeleine Giguère--v.5-8.Louisiana / compiled by Mathé Allain and Carl A. Brasseaux.


Guignard, Michael J. (Michael James), La foi, la langue, la culture : the Franco-Americans of Biddeford, Maine,   [New York?] : M.J. Guignard, 1982.


Hareven, Tamara K. and Langenbach, Randolph.  Amoskeag:  Live and Work in an American Factory-City.   New York:  Pantheon, 1978.


Kempers, Anne, Franco-American studies : a resource guide, Orono, Me. : University of Maine at Orono, 1980, "An annotated bibliography of materials about Franco-Americans and French Canada which are available in the greater Waterville area."


Lanctot, Gustave, Filles de joie ou filles du Roi, Éditions du Jour, Saint-Denis, Montréal, Canada, 1966.


Landry, Yves.,  Orphelines en France pionnières au Canada: Les Filles du roi au XVIIe siècle , Leméac Éditeur, Inc., Montréal, QC, Canada, 1992.


Lane, Brigitte Marie, -American folk traditions and popular culture in a former milltown : aspects of ethnic urban folklore and the dynamics of folklore change in Lowell, Massachusetts. New York : Garland Publishing, 1990.


Ledoux, Denis.  BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FRANCO-AMERICAN WORKS, Lisbon Falls, Me. : Soleil Press, 1991.


Ledoux, Denis, Lives in translation : an anthology of contemporary Franco-American writings, Lisbon Falls, Me. : Soleil Press, 1991.


Le Forum, ed. Lisa Michaud, Franco-American Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, 1972 to the present.


Le Maître, Yvonne, Littértature franco-américaine de la Nouvelle-Angeleterre, Anthologie, Tome 5, National Assessment and Dissemination Center for Bilingual/Bicultural Education, 1981.


Lemieux-Lévesque, Alice, (1906-1983) Livres de poésie:   "Les herures effeuillées," "Silences," et "L'arbre du jour," 1964 - Le Prix littéraire Champlain pour Silence (poèmes).


Lemieux-Lévesque, Alice (1906-1983), "Bonsoir Marie Noël"

in Poésie, vol. 3, no 1, hiver 1968, p. 3-4


Lessard-Bissonnette, Camille.  Canuck.  Manchester, NH:   National Materials Development Center, 1980.


Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, Evangeline, ISBN 0-920852-13-0


Maillet, Antonine, Pélagie, New Canadian Classics, ISBN 0-7736-7434-9


Maillet, Antonine, La Sagouine, Translated by Luis de Cespedes, Simone & Pierre, Toronto, Canada, 1985.


Martin, Marie Thérèse Beaudet, My Grandmother's Face/La Visage de ma Grandmérè, Wilton Publishing Co., Wilton, Maine, 1990.


Metalious, Grace, Peyton Place, York, Messner [1956].


Metalious, Grace, Peyton Place, Boston : Northeastern University Press, 1999.


Metalious, Grace, Peyton Place ; and, Return to Peyton Place .

New York : Random House International ; London : 2000 Description: 640 p. ; p., 23 cm.: English Standard No: ISBN: 0517204770


Metalious, Grace.  No Adam in Eden. London, Muller, Year: 1964  Description: 287 p. p. Language: English Class Descrpt: Dewey: 813.5.


Metalious, Grace. The Tight White Collar. London : Pan Books, Year: 1968  Description: 236 p. ; p., 18 cm.Language: English.


Metalious, Grace. Return to Peyton Place. Publication:   Pan, Year: 1961 Description: 286 p. ; p., 18 cm. Language: English. Note(s):  Originally published Messner, 1960.


Nadeau-Single, Lee, Annette : the story of a pioneer woman. New York : Vantage Press, 1990, Edition: 1st ed.


Nos Histoire de l'Ile: History and Memories of French Island, Old Town, Maine, 1999.


O'Brien, Kerry A., Consuming interests : class, ethnicity, and consumption in Biddeford , Maine, 1890-1915, vii, 209 leaves : ill, Thesis (M.A.)--University of Southern Maine, 1993, Portland, Me. : University of Southern Maine, 1993.


Old women's wisdom. [Presque Isle, Me.] Old Women's Wisdom, 1996.


Olivier, Julien , D'la boucane : une introduction au folklore Franco-américain de la Nouvelle-Angleterre.  Cambridge, Mass. : National Assessment and Dissemination Center for Bilingual/Bicultural Education, 1979.


Pecoraro, Elizabeth J., Using theatre arts skills to instruct Franco American students: a creative dramatics approach, Orono, Me., Thesis (M.A.) in Theatre--University of Maine, 1991.


Pelletier, Cathie:

The Christmas Note, by Skeeter Davis, Cathie Pelletier, Carl E. Hileman (Illustrator), Reading level: Ages 9-12, Hardcover (November 1997), Nashville Book; ISBN: 0966077601


A Country Music Christmas, Publisher: Random House Value Publishing, Inc., 1996.


Beaming Sonny Home, Paperback - 288 pages (July 1997) Washington Square Pr; ISBN: 0671001752


The Funeral Makers, Paperback - 272 pages Reprint edition (May 1997)

Scribner; ISBN: 0684826143


Once Upon a Time on the Banks, Paperback Reprint edition (September 1991) Washington Square Pr; ISBN: 0671724479



The Weight of Winter, Publisher: Viking Press, 1991, Hardbound, Edition: First edition.


The Bubble Reputation, Crown Publishing Group, Incorporated, 1993, Hard Cover, Edition: First Edition.


A Marriage Made at Woodstock, Publisher: Crown, 1994, Edition: First Edition

Widow's Walk (Poems).


also by Pelletier:


Candles on Bay Street, pen name, K. C. McKinnon, Hardcover - 230 pages 1 Ed edition (April 20, 1999),  Doubleday; ISBN: 038549128X


Dancing at the Harvest Moon, pen name, by K. C. McKinnon, Mass Market Paperback - 248 pages 1 ballanti edition (April 1999), Fawcett Books; ISBN: 0449005275


Pelletier, Raymond J  and   Freeman, Stanley L., Manuel du professeur pour introduire les études franco-americaines : Initiating Franco-American studies : a handbook for teachers, Orono, Me. : a publication of the Canadian/Franco-American Studies Project, University of Maine at Orono, 1981, 284 p. : map. ; 23 cm English and French, "Funds for the writing of this Handbook were provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities through Grant Number ES-3109-78-1272." Bibliography: p. 233-268.


Perreault, Gene. Memories Grow On Trees/L'Arbre des Mémoires , National Materials Development Center, 1980.


Perreault, Robert B., One piece in the great American mosaic : the Franco-Americans of New England.  Manchester, N.H. :Association Canado-américaine, 1976.


Petrie, Lanette Landry, My Mother's Walls, Proof Positive Press, Bradley Maine.


Pinette, Susan., Alternative ethnographies : genre and cultural encounter in early modern French texts, viii, 161 leaves, Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D., French)--University of California, Irvine, 1999.


Proulx, E. Annie:


Postcards (Scribner Classics)

Annie Proulx, E. Annie Proulx / Hardcover / Published 1996


The Best American Short Stories 1997 : Selected from U.S. and

Canadian Magazines (Issn 0067-6233)

Annie Proulx (Editor), et al / Hardcover / Published 1997


Close Range : Wyoming Stories

Hardcover - 283 pages Non-Illustrated edition (May 1999)

Scribner; ISBN: 0684852217


Accordion Crimes

Annie Proulx, E. Annie Proulx / Paperback / Published 1997


Heart Songs and Other Stories

Annie Proulx, E. Annie Proulx / Paperback / Published 1995


The Shipping News

E. Annie Proulx; Paperback - 337 pages 1 touchsto edition (August 1994) Simon & Schuster (Paper); ISBN: 0671510053


Cider : Making, Using & Enjoying Sweet & Hard Cider

Annie Proulx, et al / Paperback / Published 1997


Fiction, Flyfishing & the Search for Innocence

Annie Proulx (Editor), et al / Hardcover / Published 1994


Back to Barter : What'll You Take for It?

Annie Proulx / Published 1983


Fine Art of Salad Gardening

Annie Proulx / Published 1987 


What'll You Take for It? : Back to Barter

Annie. Proulx / Published 1981


Provencher-Faucher, Doris, Le Quebecois:   The Virgin Forest, ARTENAY PRESS, September, 2000, Trade paperback: 6 x 9, 272 pages, maps and sketches, ISBN: 0-9679112-3-0


Quintal, Claire, La femme franco-américaine --The Franco-American woman, Worcester, Mass. : Institut français, Assumption College, 1994.


Francophonies d'Amérique, Par/by Les Presses du l'Université d'Ottawa No. 7, in which articles by Claire Quintal and Elizabeth Aubé appear on Franco-American Women: Aube, Mary Elizabeth, "Canuck", nomade franco-americaine: Persistance et transformation de l'imaginaire canadien-francais" in Francophonies d'Amérique, no 7, 1997 (Issue on "Le(s) discours feminin(s) de la francophonie nord-americaine", Estelle Dansereau, editor) p. 163-176.


Quintal, Claire, "La federation franco-americaine ou comment les Franco-Americaines sont entrees de plain-pied dans le mouvement de la survivance" p. 177-191 in Francophonies d'Amérique, no 7, 1997 p. 177-191.


Quintal Claire, Steeples and smokestacks : a collection of essays on the Franco-American experience in New England.   Worcester, Mass. :Assumption College, Institut français, 1996.


River Revue/Review Rivière , University of Maine at Fort Kent, Fort Kent, Maine, ongoing.


Roby, Yves. Franco-Américains de la Nouvelle-Angleterre: Rêves et réalités.

Éditeur : Septentrion, Sillery (Québec), Canada, Genre: Population / Généalogie. 534 pages, ISBN 2-89448-164-0, 2000


Robbins, Rhea Côté, Wednesday's Child. Brunswick, Me. : Maine Writers & Publishers Alliance, 1997.. 2nd Edition, Rheta Press, Brewer, 2001.


Robbins, Rhea Côté, The River Review/La Revue rivière, "Franco-American Women's Literary Tradition: A Central Piece in the Region's Literary Mosaic," University of Maine at Fort Kent, Fort Kent, Me. 1999.


Robbins, Rhea Côté, L'Ouest Français et la Francophonie Nord-Américaine, "De l'Ile à la Tortue, à la   Nouvelle France, à la Nouvelle-Angleterre : lutte pour une identité vivable," Chapter 5 Something That Will Cure, Presses de L'Université d'Angers, Angers, France, 1996.

Robbins, Rhea Côté, Petrie, Lanette Landry, Langellier, Kristin , Slott, Kathryn , Je suis franco-américaine et fière de l'être/I am Franco-American and proud of it : an anthology of writings of Franco-American women, Women in the Curriculum, University of Maine, Orono, Maine,1995.

"Canuck and Other Stories [Paperback]." Canuck and Other Stories (9780966853629): Rhea Cote Robbins: Books. Ed. Rhea J. Cote Robbins. Rheta Press, 28 Sept. 2006. Web. 04 Mar. 2013.

Shideler, Janet L., Camille Lessard-Bissonnette: The Quiet Evolution of French-Canadian Immigrants in New England, Peter Lang Publishing Group, New York, Vol. 14  ISBN, 0-8204-2833-7, hardback, 1998.


Sur bois : Franco-American woodcarvers of northern New England. Manchester, N.H. : Franco-American Centre Franco-Américain, 1996.


Terrio, David S., A summer internship : some observations on the Franco-American situation in Maine. [Augusta, Me. : Human Rights Commission, 1978].


Toth, Emily. Inside Peyton Place : the life of Grace Metalious, Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, Year: 2000 1981: Standard No:   ISBN: 1578062683 (pbk.); LCCN: 00-24660.


Toth, Emily. Unveiling Kate Chopin, Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, 1999.


Turbin, Carole Working Women of Collar City: Gender, Class, and Community in Troy, New York, 1845-86 (U of Illinois Press, 1992).


White niggers of America.  Vallières, Pierre.  Publisher Toronto, McClelland and Stewart [c1971] Translation of Nègres blancs d'Amérique: autobiographie précoce d'un terroriste québécois   Subject: French-Canadians, Québec (Province) -- History -- Autonomy and independence movements. Québec (Province) -- Social conditions.   Alt titles Nègres blancs d'Amérìque.   White niggers of America : the precocious autobiography of a Quebec "terrorist"


"The Chinese of the East" was used in a government report: Carroll Wright, Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor Annual Report for [Bangor, Me.] : Maine Public Broadcasting, [1993?].



Rhea Côté Robbins was brought up bilingually in a Franco-American  neighborhood in Waterville, Maine known as 'down the Plains.'     Her maman came from Wallagrass, a town in the northern part of the state and her father  was from Waterville. She has spent many years researching the origins and  visiting the hometowns of her ancestors in Canada and France.   

Côté Robbins was the winner of the Maine Chapbook Award for her work of creative nonfiction entitled, Wednesday's Child   .   She is a founder and  Executive Director of the Franco-American Women's Institute.     She has written a sequel titled 'down the Plains.'

She lives in Brewer with her husband, David. They have three grown children. Page last updated: 12-3-2021